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Torun - is an ancient city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River. Its population is 205,934 as of June 2009. Toruñ is one of the oldest cities in Poland. The medieval old town of Toruñ is the birthplace of the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.

Monastery Gate.

One of the eight gates which guarded the entrance to the Old Town in the Middle Ages. It was erected in the first half of XIV century, and new storeys were added in early XV century, due to the development of firearms. It owes its name to the benedictine monastery with a hospital and the Holy Spirit church which stood by the gate outside town walls till the XVII century. That is why the gate is also called the Holy Spirit gate. It is a broad gate of the Flanders type with a retractable grate placed in a pointed arch niche, behind which an orifice called a “gruel hole” is situated. The opening was used to attack the storming enemy, who managed to break through the grate. Behind the “gruel hole” the main gate was placed. The massive gate wings could be strengthened from the inside of the town with beams inserted into special holders mounted to the side walls. In XIX century, after rebuilding and elevating, the gate became an apartment building.

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Additional Photos by Krzysztof Dera (Fis2) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 14902 W: 165 N: 25826] (172083)
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