Photographer's Note

Following the destruction of Hittite Empire by the Aegean migrations, many small kingdoms emerged here and there, and they ruled Anatolia between 1,250 - 750 BCE. Besides these many smaller kingdoms, we know two powerful states, one is Urartian Kingdom that we have discussed in the previous chapter, and the other one is Phrygian Kingdom which ruled from central Anatolian plateau.

Assyrian cuneiforms, late Hittite hieroglyphic inscriptions, Urartian annals and Classical Greek writers have provided much information about the Phrygians. Also, the pottery and other objects found at the sites of Gordion the capital of Phrygians and Pazarli supported the information given by the ancient texts. Based on the writings of Greek and Lydian historians, and also archaeological evidence, we can believe that the Phrygians originated from the Danube area, from where they migrated into Thrace and later crossed the Dardanelles and settled in and around Troy and soon after spread over the western Anatolia. From the exactly same style burial mounds found in Thrace and Gordion, we can trace the roots of the Phrygians first to Thrace and on to the area along the Danube river.

Part of the problem in origins of the Phrygians lies in the various names given to tribes or peoples who may have been Phrygians. For example Mushki, which is frequently mentioned in the Assyrian annals, sometimes often, in connection with Tabal, also long assumed to have been Phrygians. Probably, the Phrygian kingdom comprised a confederation of peoples, united against the Assyrian kingdom. As we read in the Urartian chapter, Urartians followed pretty much the same policies against Assyrians.

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Additional Photos by Hakan Aydin (Hakkan) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 72 W: 7 N: 52] (890)
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